Analytical Measurement Laboratory
The main responsibility of the Analytical Measurement Laboratory is to carry out routine chemical analyses, measurements, and project activities within the framework of the applicable laws, as well as the provisions of the Turkish Energy, Nuclear, and Mineral Research Agency. This laboratory uses advanced analytics and measurement techniques to develop analysis methods in accordance with the international standards of protecting the environment and human health. Research and development studies are carried out in facilities where nuclear technology is used. In the meanwhile, the laboratory provides analysis support for research projects carried out by other units within the Institute.
The Analytical Measurement Laboratory has four laboratories with technological infrastructure and qualified personnel.
Element Analysis Laboratory
Stable Isotope Analysis Laboratory
Total Organic Carbon/Total Nitrogen (TOC/TN) Laboratory
These analytical laboratories are capable of conducting studies to develop methods for the detection, identification and quantification of the elemental and molecular content of a wide variety of samples.
In addition to the analysis services provided for identifying the dates of archaeological findings and geological samples with TL/OSL and ESR techniques, studies are being carried out to increase laboratory capabilities by closely monitoring the literature in order to provide more relevant services.
Experimental Irradiation Laboratory
With the fully automatic Co60 gamma irradiation source (dose rate, approximately 1.5 kGy/hour, as December 2017) of the Experimental Irradiation Laboratory, the samples from the center and various universities, research centers, and private sector researchers in Turkey are subjected to experimental irradiation works.
Boosting a maximum capacity of 12000 Ci, the experimental irradiation device can perform at three different dose rates. During the irradiation, the source is kept stable and the dose distribution is obtained homogeneously by rotating the sample basket.
The sample basket has a cylindrical container form with a volume of approximately 10 liters with dimensions of Ø 220 mm x 250 mm.
Food Research Laboratory
Food irradiation is a technology developed to preserve the quality of foods, provide hygiene, and prolong the storage period. This technology is a physical application such as pasteurization, canning, and freezing methods. The main objectives of the research are as follows: to carry out the fundamental analysis to facilitate the application of food irradiation technology in the food industry; to identify irradiated foods with international methods; to promote nuclear analytical techniques in food safety, traceability, and adulteration; to inform food producers and exporters, universities, research institutes, regulatory authorities and the public about food irradiation; and to provide training and consultancy services. Thus, food irradiation activities are conducted through three laboratories.
Food Chemistry Laboratory
Food Microbiology Laboratory
Irradiated Food Identification Laboratory
Accelerator and Fusion Research Laboratories
Research activities are carried out at the Accelerator Technologies and Fusion Laboratories according to the needs of the country, by considering the current developments in the fields of accelerator and fusion.
Metrology Calibration Laboratories
Recognized as the Designated Institute by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), the European Union of Metrology Institutes (EURAMET), and TUBITAK National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK-UME) within the scope of the International Committee of Weights and Measurements Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), to which Turkey is a party, TENMAK-NÜKEN, operates in our country to ensure ionizing radiation measurements. In this context, TENMAK-NÜKEN ensures the equivalence and traceability between the national and international measurement standards.
TENMAK-NÜKEN fulfills its mission with its Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories and Radionuclide Metrology Laboratories, continuing to represent our country in the national and international platforms on ionizing radiation metrology.
Within the scope of the powers entrusted upon NÜKEN, a reference point of the measurements made in our country in the field of ionizing radiation metrology, representing the country before national and international organizations, pursuant to the Presidential Decree No. 57 published in the Official Gazette dated 28 March 2020 and numbered 31082, the following activities are performed:
NÜKEN carries out the ionizing radiation metrology activities at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories in Ankara and Istanbul, respectively, and at the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory located in the Ankara campus. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories have full membership at the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network, which includes 16 Primary and 87 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories.
Also, NÜKEN represents the country at (EURAMET Technical Committee of Ionizing Radiation-TC-IR) and (International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology-ICRM. https://www.euramet.org/technical-committees/tc-q/The quality management system of the ionizing radiation metrology is monitored by the EURAMET Quality Technical Committee (Euramet-TC-Q) according to the quality management system evaluation reports prepared on an annual and five-year basis.
Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation Laboratories
Missions of the laboratory in Ankara Campus are: to carry out research, design and production activities in the field of nuclear electronics; to provide systems for radiation measurement, control and protection; to provide technical support to production and operation; to ensure the functioning of existing electronic systems and devices; and to keep the technical and electronic infrastructure of units and research laboratories active.
In the Istanbul Campus, there are two laboratories with experienced personnel and sufficient technological infrastructure in the field of nuclear electronics.
Development and Production of Radiation Meter Device Laboratory
The following activities are performed at this laboratory:
Developing prototypes of radiation measurement and monitoring devices and military-purpose radiation measuring devices, which are needed by public institutions and private sector organizations using nuclear technology and radiation sources, in accordance with technological developments, as well as providing on-demand production services.
Within the scope of the project launched in 1986, radiation measurement and monitoring devices, as well as the radiation Early Warning System have been developed in various sizes and properties in accordance with today's technology.
Not only the production output fulfills the institutional requirements, but also it has been used in the relevant universities, hospitals, industrial organizations, in addition to the Turkish Armed Forces, and the General Directorate of Civil Defense, reducing the import volume significantly. Since 1986, more than 10,000 items of radiation measurement and monitoring devices have been released in various sizes. Device development and production activities are still being continued in parallel with technological developments.
Developed by our unit, and installed on various provinces and districts of our country, the Radiation Early Warning System Network is subjected to development and improvement activities. These activities mainly focus on reaching a specific production output target by establishing new stations in various locations of the country, as well as keeping the current system available by performing maintenance and repair works.
Within the scope of the development of nuclear measuring devices, the Radiation Early Warning System Network project has been carried out in order to ensure nuclear and radiological safety of the country. Developed at our campuses, this system has been constantly monitoring the radiation levels since 1999 with more than two hundred stations, most of which located near the borders. Today, the system is being operated by the Nuclear Regulatory Board.
With respect to Radiation Early Warning System Network, the Laboratories at our unit focus on:
Performing corrective and developing activities on the software and hardware of Radiation Early Warning System Network components,
Producing the components of the new stations to be added to the Radiation Early Warning System Network under Nuclear Regulatory Body's plans.
Radiation Measurement Device Maintenance and Repair Laboratory
The studies include providing maintenance, repair services for all kinds of electronics, devices, and systems used at Istanbul Campus Laboratories, as well as the Radiation Early Warning System Network stations. Furthermore, the Laboratory focuses on the radiation measurement and monitoring devices and systems used by various domestic public/private sector actors, as well as the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Radiation Meter Device Development research and Production, Maintenance, Repair Laboratory works are carried out using the devices and software listed below.
Nuclear Fuel and Material Research Laboratory
Experimental studies on nuclear fuel production and fuel cycle processes are carried out with different methods within the scope of research projects in the laboratories located in the Istanbul campus. Thus, R&D studies are carried out to produce nuclear fuel raw materials, fuel pellets, and to identify the physical, chemical, and thermal properties of the fuels, especially UO2and ThO2. In addition, studies are focused on the characterization of the properties of various nuclear materials.
In one of the laboratories at the Ankara Campus, the materials used in the field of nuclear and radiation technologies are produced and classified. In addition, R&D activities continue to focus on improving the material properties with accelerator technology and ionizing radiation. Moreover, the devices available at the laboratories can provide analysis and imaging services.
Radiation Detection Systems Laboratory
Studies in the Radiation Detection Systems Laboratory (located in Ankara Campus) are carried out by using the devices listed below.
GM Gas Filling System (Edwards T-station 75)
Turbo-molecular vacuum pump (10-7 Torr)
High Voltage DC Power Supply (SDC-100)
Digital Oscilloscope (Yokogawa DL9040L 500 MHz)
Radiation Microbiology Laboratory
According to TS EN ISO 11137-1; while the manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the product quality and identifying the required sterilization dose, the irradiation plant is responsible for administering the dose identified by the manufacturer. The manufacturer can obtain the sterilization dose information of products from the "dose identification" tests to be performed by the competent laboratories (see TS EN ISO 11137-2). The following conditions must be met in order to perform these test:
The relevant information on the three experiments performed at the Radiation Microbiology Laboratory (RML) of the GAMA irradiation facility, and accredited by TÜRKAK are as follows.
1) Detection of the Microorganism Population on Medical Materials
The purpose is to detect the average microbial load on the pre-sterilization material. The sterilization method through which the material will be sterilized is not of importance. This method is also an important part of the experiment named "Identification of Sterilization Dose by Radiation". The data obtained from the experiment is used by the manufacturer to validate the sterilization process, perform routine control on the production process, determine the contamination resources, and review the environmental conditions.
2) Sterility Control
Medical sterility control:
The purpose is to review the sterility of medical products after the sterilization. The method through which the medical product has been sterilized is irrelevant. By using either Direct Planting or Filtration methods depending on the sample characteristics, the sterility is controlled for three reproduction conditions (aerobe, anaerobe, and fungus) in two different nutrient media. In the end of the experiment, the sample will be declared "sterile" or "non-sterile" depending on the reproduction results.
Sterility control for validation purposes:
This method is a part of the experiment named "Identification of Sterilization Dose by Radiation". The samples are irradiated with a verification dose, which is lower than the sterilization dose. By using either Direct Planting or Filtration methods depending on its characteristics, the sample is tested under one reproduction condition (30−35 0C) with one different nutrient media. In the end of the experiment, the reproduction results will be declared. This information is used to identify the sterilization dose.
3) Identification of Sterilization Dose by Radiation
In addition to the identification of the sterilization dose, the experiment is applied to validate the sterilization process. The sterilization dose by radiation is identified depending on the microbiological burdens of the product (bioburden), radiation resistance, and desired sterility level (SAL). The manufacturer must choose one of two approaches depending on the features of the product.
Once the dose has been identified, it must be reviewed at the prescribed intervals per the relevant standards (Dose Control Test).
Radioactivity Measurement Laboratory
The Radioactivity Measurement Laboratories have been established in order to implement the necessary radiological measurement techniques and to conduct R&D activities to ensure the radiation safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
The fundamental responsibilities of the laboratories are to: ensure that the radiological and isotopic analyses are performed with competent, accurate, precise, and traceable methods; conduct R&D studies on the use of nuclear techniques in different areas; ensure the sustainability of laboratory infrastructure with available knowledge, experience, and expertise; promote sharing of the information and knowledge in radiological and isotopic measurement and analysis by engaging in cooperation with other institutions and organizations.
Radioactivity analysis on many samples are done at the Radioactivity Measurement and Analysis Laboratories by using various techniques. With qualified personnel and technological infrastructure, the Radioactivity Measurement and Analysis Laboratories consist of 5 laboratories.
Gamma Spectrometry Laboratory
Total Alpha Beta Counting Laboratory
Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry Laboratory
Alpha Spectrometry Laboratory
14C Date Identification Laboratory
The experiment methods employed by Gamma Spectrometry, Total Alpha Beta Counting, Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry, and Alpha Spectrometry Laboratories have been accredited by TÜRKAK under the TS EN ISO/IEC 17025 Standard. Thus, R&D activities are carried out to improve the infrastructure and measurement capabilities of our laboratories in addition to participating in the international qualification tests regularly.
Preparation of the high-activity IR-192 and SE-75 closed resources used in the industrial non-destructive test applications.
Production of sterile and apyrogenic cold radiopharmaceutical kits (i.e., MDP, DTPA, and PYP) used for scintigraphy and diagnosis purposes.
Quality control of locally-produced or imported radiopharmaceuticals at the Centralized Radiopharmaceutical Laboratories.
Development of new generation cold kits.
Health Physics Laboratories
The purpose is to perform the measurement, evaluation, monitoring, and service provision activities in accordance with the applicable national and international regulations concerning the protection of those working with radiation, the general public, and the environment from radiation generated by unwanted or planned irradiations. Therefore, the following activities are performed:
The services provided in this area are as follows:
Non-Destructive Testing Laboratories
Non-destructive testing (NDT) activities are offered to the industry on-site or in the laboratory in the form of training, research, and consultancy services.
The industrial services are provided in 6 methods (i.e., radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, swirl currents and visual inspection). The NDT Laboratories were accredited in 2009 by TÜRKAK according to TS EN ISO / IEC 17025 standard in terms of all methods other than the visual inspection. The NDT Laboratories have been furnished with conventional and advanced technology systems.
Studies were carried out on the subject of "Development of Advanced Non-Destructive Testing Techniques for Nuclear Technology" in order to audit the non-destructive testing activities to be performed by the third parties during the construction and operation of the nuclear power plants in our country, as well as to perform on-site non-destructive testing applications. In this context, the objective is to establish a technical support infrastructure within TAEK. For this purpose, advanced non-destructive testing techniques, digital ultrasonic and digital radiography, have been founded initially.
Non-Destructive Testing Training, Examination and Certification
Organized according to TS EN ISO 9712 Standard, the non-destructive testing training is offered in 5 methods (radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, swirl currents) in 3 levels. The Certification Body of Non-Destructive Testing Personnel was founded under the Department of Technological Development in 2015. The Examination and Certification Bodies have been accredited by TÜRKAK according to TS EN ISO/IEC 17024 Standard.
In order to implement and develop NDT methods and techniques, a large number of R&D projects have been, and still are carried out with the support of IAEA and TAEK.
Agricultural Research Laboratory
Agricultural research is one of the areas where nuclear techniques are used most intensively. We use nuclear techniques as agricultural research tools is to find solutions to agricultural problems that cannot be eliminated with traditional methods. In addition to leading the R&D studies in original projects, our purpose is to promote nuclear techniques in the country's agriculture, and provide the relevant organizations with the technical data obtained. In this context, the R&D studies are carried out by the relevant laboratories regarding plant breeding, plant protection, soil efficiency, plant feeding, and earth-water relations. Moreover, the laboratories offer education to the researchers attending the national and international courses held within the organization of our labs.
The R&D studies regarding the above issues are as follows:
Breeding research for developing new varieties is conducted at the Plant Breeding Laboratory.
Researches focusing on the relationship between soil-plant-nutrients-water are carried out at the Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Laboratory
Studies on plant protection and pesticide residues are conducted at the Plant Protection Laboratory.