Electron Accelerator Plant

This facility is an electron accelerator plant with ICT type 500 keV 20 mA specifications. It is possible to achieve many applications of Radiation Technology with the existing infrastructure of the Electron Accelerator Plant. The plant consists of 3 different units, including

Stack gas treatment unit

Waste water treatment unit

Solid and liquid sample irradiation unit.

Gamma Irradiation Plant

Founded in 1993, this facility is a box-type Class IV plant.The plant uses Co-60 radioisotope as an irradiation resource.

There are three main areas in which radiation irradiation is used.

  • Sterilization of single-use medical materials: Compared to other methods, it is a sterilization method that has proven its superiority and reliability all over the world, due to its features such as providing full initiative in all cavities and closed packages, leaving no chemical residues and no post-process quarantine period.
  • Food irradiation: It is a food preservation method that is widely used all over the world for various purposes, including, but not limited to the prevention of sprouting, germination, and infestation during storage, shelf life extension, and reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in food. The procedures and principles of food irradiation have been stipulated under "Food Irradiation Legislation".
  • Polymer modification/cross-linking: Cross-linking is the formation of a network structure between polymer chains by irradiation. With this network-like structure formed between the chains, the polymeric materials can turn into much more durable structures.

The products do not contact the radiation source during the irradiation process. In other words, there lies a distance between the radiation source and the products, which separates them physically. However, even if the source surface comes into contact with the product packages, there is no radioactive contamination on the irradiated product since there is no radioactive substance residue on the source surface. Thus, the irradiation does not cause chemical or radioactive contamination, nor does it leave residue on the product. In addition, gamma rays or electrons emitted from the radiation source do not turn the products into radioactive. As a result, the products of irradiation process do not emit radiation.

The products are loaded in the irradiation boxes (dimensions: 45x45x90 cm, max. load: 50 kg). That's why it is imperative that the dimensions of the product boxes match the dimensions of the irradiation boxes. Irradiation boxes loaded with products are taken to the irradiation room, where the radiation source is located by a carrier car moving on the rail. The products are irradiated by circulating the irradiation boxes around the radiation source for a predetermined time according to the requested dose. The products are irradiated by the absorption of all or part of the energy of the gamma rays emitted from the Co-60 radioisotope as it passes through the product. In other words, the radiation dose to which the products are subjected (Gray=Joule/kg) is the amount of radiation energy absorbed by the products and is measured using devices called dosimeters. Dosimeters are irradiated with the products and evaluated after the process to find the highest and lowest dose values received by the product. Thus, it can be verified that the requested dose has been given to the product. These values are stated on the certificate of irradiation.

Proton Accelerator Plant

The plant was founded to produce radioisotope and radiopharmaceuticals that our country needs in nuclear medicine for diagnostic purposes, to carry out quality control, to lead and provide infrastructure for the R&D studies and training activities on proton accelerators.

Another founding purpose of PAP is to become a pioneer in the R&D studies by using the accelerator technology. The facility is the first integrated plant that covers the production of various radiopharmaceuticals, quality control, and patient dose distribution, as well as R&D studies in the nuclear field. In addition, the accelerator installed in PAP is the first and only accelerator with 30 MeV energy.

The R&D studies that can be conducted at the plant are as follows:

  • Nuclear physics,
  • Material researches,
  • Neutron activation analyses,
  • Industrial applications,
  • Irradiation services,
  • New radiopharmaceutical development studies.

Radiopharmaceuticals produced at the plant are as follows:

  • TAEK-PHT FDG (18F) 740-11100 MBq/mL I.V Injectable Vial with Solution
  • TAEK-PHT 123I-NaI (Sodium Iodure) 37 MBq/mL I.V Injectable Vial with Solution
  • TAEK-PHT 201TlCl (Thallium Chloride) 37 MBq/mL I.V Injectable Solution
  • TAEK-PHT 67GaCit (Gallium Citrate) 74 MBq/mL I.V Injectable Solution
  • TAEK-PHT 111InCl3 (Indium Chloride) Radiopharmaceutical Precursor
  • TAEK-PHT 123I-NaI (Sodium Iodure) 75 mCi/mL Active Agent
  • TAEK-PHT 201TlCl (Thallium Chloride) Active Agent

Services provided at the plant:

  • In the plant, irradiation services are provided for R&D and radioisotope production with proton beam.
  • Within the framework of the potential cooperation with universities, infrastructure will be offered to future projects.
  • Upon national or international demands, training is available at the facility on subjects such as radiopharmaceutical production, good manufacturing practices, accelerator operation, and protection from radiation.


ISO 9001

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice)



TR-2 Reactor Research Plant

The first nuclear facility of our country was founded in 1959, with the establishment of the TR-1 research reactor with a power of 1 MW. Pursuant to decision number 4 of the Atomic Energy Council meeting dated 12/08/1960, the "atomic reactor" project was named as "Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center" based on its location and the assigned tasks. On 06.01.1962 at 19:14, the TR-1 research reactor became "critical", and the establishment of the center was completed with the official opening on 27.05.962 with the ceremony held in the attendance of the President. 

In the 1970s, it was decided to build a second reactor with higher capacity in the same building and pool in order to keep up with the studies in the nuclear field and meet the increasing demand for radioisotopes in Turkey. TR-2 research reactor was put into service in 1984 with a power of 5 MW at full capacity. In 1995, the works at the reactor were reduced to low power for the seismic evaluation of the reactor building. The reactor is operated at low power according to testing, analysis, and training requirements.

TR-2 Reactor Research Plant

TR-2 Research Reactor is an open-pool type reactor with 5 MW thermal power, using low-rich uranium fuels. The reactor was put into operation in 1982 in order to carry out basic research and development studies to ensure the development of nuclear technology in the country, to conduct research on the production and production techniques of radioisotopes used in medicine and industry, and to train personnel to work in the nuclear field.
TR-2 Research Reactor is operated in accordance with the conditions determined under the national and international regulations.
The plant provides the highest neutron flux in the country for nuclear research and service purposes.
Typical activities performed at the reactor are as follows:
Production of radioisotopes used in medicine and industry,
Sample irradiations for neutron activation analyses,
Experimental calculations of thermo-hydraulics and neutrons, as well as other research activities related to nuclear technology,
Training of reactor operation personnel, radiation protection personnel, and university students studying nuclear-related subjects,
Promotion and touring of the TR-2 reactor to various professional and student groups for the purpose of informing the public.

Being the most comprehensive nuclear facility in Turkey, TR-2 is kept ready to be activated at all times in order to maintain the experience and expertise gained in the nuclear technology, follow the developments at the international level, keep the relationships up-to-date, evaluate research, development and production opportunities in the nuclear technology depending on the changes in the global radioisotope supply and demand, and to offer all kinds of applied training programs in line with its initial foundational objectives.

 Experimental Studies at TR-2 Reactor Research Plant

The following activities can be performed on-demand in the reactor: production of radioisotopes used in medicine and industry, sample irradiation for neutron activation analyses, experimental calculations of thermal-hydraulics and neutrons. In addition, on-the-job training of reactor operator personnel and radiation protection personnel who will work at the facilities, and internship training of university students studying on related subjects can be provided.